BENTUK DAN LATAR BELAKANG MUNCULNYA HATE SPEECH DALAM BAHASA ARAB: ANALISIS MORFOLOGI DAN PRAGMATIK

Muhammad Yunus Anis

Abstract


Penelitian ini mengelaborasi lebih dalam satuan kebahasaan yang selama ini digunakan oleh masyarakat dalam mengungkapkan ujaran kebencian dalam bahasa Arab. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah satuan kebahasaan yang ada dalam koran berbahasa Arab, baik berupa kata, frasa, maupun kalimat yang menjadi unsur penting munculnya sebuah ujaran kebencian. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan bahasa, khususnya dalam ranah morfologis dan pragmatis. Ranah morfologis terkait dengan kosakata yang digunakan dalam mengungkapkan ujaran kebencian bahasa Arab. Adapun ranah pragmatis terkait beberapa kasus yang menjadi latar belakang utama munculnya ujaran kebencian dalam bahasa Arab. Rumusan masalah pertama dalam penelitian ini terkait dengan bagaimana bentuk-bentuk ujaran kebencian dalam bahasa Arab ditinjau dari satuan bahasa yang menyusunnya. Adapun rumusan masalah kedua dalam penelitian ini berhubungan dengan bagaimana latar belakang munculnya ujaran kebencian dalam bahasa Arab. Metode penelitian dalam penelitian ini terbagi menjadi tiga tahapan, yaitu: (1) pengumpulan data, (2) analisis data, dan (3) laporan hasil. Metode pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode simak dan catat beberapa satuan kebahasaan yang ada dalam beberapa koran berbahasa Arab yang terkoneksi pada media sosial Instagram. Analisis data diterapkan dengan menggunakan metode distribusional yang diperkuat dengan metode analisis konten. Adapun laporan hasil dilakukan secara informal dalam bentuk deskripsi. Hasil dari penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa secara struktural bentuk ujaran kebencian dapat berupa kata, frasa, dan kalimat (predikatif). Adapun secara pragmatis, ujaran kebencian dapat dilatarbelakangi oleh ujaran yang melanggar prinsip kesantunan


This research will elaborate comprehensively the units of language which had been used by Arab people to express the hatred. The main data in this research had been collected by observing the units of language in Arab Daily Newspaper. In this case, the units of language can be divided into: word, phrase, and sentence which emerged as the main cause of hatred speech. This research dominantly used the approaches in morphology and pragmatic. The morphology analysis related with the construction of hate speech based on the elaboration of units of language. Meanwhile, the pragmatic analysis tried to elaborate some cases which had been justified as the main causal factors in Arabic hate speech. The method in this research had been divided into three basic steps, (1) collecting the data, (2) analyzing the data, and (3) reporting the result. The first step had been used the observation and recording/ noting the units of language which classified as hatred speech in Arabic daily news. The data had been focused in the Arabic daily news which connected to social media of Instagram. The data analysis had been divided into two main steps, such as distributional method and content analysis of hatred speech in Arabic language. The final step was reporting the result which had been used the informal method and description reporting. The result of the research had been concluded that the hatred speech in Arabic language can be expressed by using the units of language, such as: (1) the word, (2) the phrase, and (3) the sentence (predicative construction). Finally, based on the pragmatic approach, the causal factor of hate speech in Arabic language can be defined by the speech which contravened the principles of politeness.

Keywords: hatred, speech, morphology, pragmatic, politeness


Keywords


Ujaran Kebencian (hatespeech, al-khitabat al-karahiyyah); morfologi; pragmatik; bahasa Arab; satuan kebahasaan (units of language); prinsip-prinsip kesantunan

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29255/aksara.v32i1.447.119-134

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